When a thug murders or robs, the act is called Thuggee or tuggee, the Hindi word for deceit. The origin of the word thug is derived from the act of thugging from an ancient fraternity of assassins. The first mention of thugs in India was around 1356 A.D. and have been in operation for over 600 years. Thugs are referred to a band or fraternity and the ways to become a thug back in the day was:
- Membership passed down from father to son and some bands evolved into criminal tribes.
- Men became acquainted with members of the group and hoped to be recruited.
- Young children of victims were spared and groomed to be thugs and also children help in avoiding suspicion from authorities.
- As an apprentice, training with a guru and assessed on reliability, strength, discretion and other criteria.
The Thug Life
The modus operandi of the thugs in the past was to join travelers and gain their confidence. At the right opportunity in an isolated area or near a river bank, the thug/thugs would strangle the victims with a handkerchief, rob the victim and bury the body or throw it down a well. This led to thugs being called noose operators or phansigars.
The Thug View
Thugs considered themselves to be descendants of the goddess of death, Kali, and to be created from her sweat. Although, most of the thugs captured by the British were Muslims according to records. In actuality, people became thugs because of extreme poverty and as a source of income. Being a thug transcends religion and caste. The use of a scarf had its practical advantages as it served as a concealed weapon in plain sight. It wouldn’t strike anyone that a person with a scarf might be a thug.
The Solution To Thuggie
From the time the British were in India (the 1830’s), they tried suppressing thugs. William Henry Sleeman, a Civil servant who had adopted India as his home was instrumental in capturing Feringhea, a criminal on whom the novel Confessions of a thug is based on. The criminal led the authorities to a grave with over 100 bodies and gave up the names of his partners in crime. After this, Fleeman set up the Thuggee and Dacoity Department in 1935 and this department was replaced in 1904 by the Central Criminal Intelligence Department (CID). Some parties (France, India, and the US) believe that thuggie was an invention by the Empire to keep a hold on the country and gave them leeway to prosecute almost anyone.
The estimated death toll of civilians murdered by thugs in India over 600 years is 2 million according to the Guinness Book of World Records, 1 million according to Prem Choudhary and 500,000 according to David. C. Rapport. Thugs in India have also been quoted as the most destructive terrorist group in history.
Sleemanabad is a small town near Jabalpur named after Sleeman. This village was created in 1833 after Sleeman obtained 96 acres from the crown. The court at which Sleeman tried the thugs is now the local police station. Close by lies a shrine dedicated to William Sleeman, the repressor of thuggie.